What licensing applies to the FLAC format and software? What kinds of tags does FLAC support? What software support FLAC? What hardware products support FLAC? Why do the encoder settings have a big effect on the encoding time but not the decoding time? Why use FLAC instead of other codecs that compress more?
Why can't you make FLAC encode faster? How much testing has been done on FLAC?Using Python in FLAC3D 6
What is the lowest bitrate or highest compression achievable with FLAC? How many channels does FLAC support? What kind of audio samples does FLAC support? Will FLAC ever support floating-point samples? How do I encode a file that starts with a dash? Why does it take so long to edit some FLAC files with metaflac? Why doesn't the same file compressed on different machines with the same options yield the same FLAC file? How can I determine the encoded frame length?
Project Where are the mailing lists, forums, discussion areas, etc.? How do I submit a bug report? This is similar to how Zip works, except with FLAC you will get much better compression because it is designed specifically for audio, and you can play back compressed FLAC files in your favorite player or your car or home stereo, see supported devices just like you would an MP3 file.
See the license page. FLAC has it's own native tagging system which is identical to that of Vorbis. It is the only tagging system required and guaranteed to be supported by FLAC implementations. Out of convenience, the reference decoder knows how to skip ID3 tags so that they don't interfere with decoding. This list is so large now it is difficult to maintain and keep up-to-date.
For a partial list of open-source software that supports FLAC, see the software section of the links page. For a partial list of the most popular software used to encode, decode, play, tag, and rip FLAC files, see the download page.
The easiest way is to use the Xiph. See the hardware section of the links page. You can think of an audio codec as having two layers. The inside layer is the raw compressed data, and the outside layer is the "container" or "transport layer" that splits and arranges the compressed data in pieces so it can be seeked through, edited, etc. Ogg is a much more powerful transport layer that enables mixing several kinds of different streams audio, data, metadata, etc.
The overhead is slightly higher than with native FLAC. In either case, the compressed FLAC data is the same and one can be converted to the other without re-encoding. The short answer right now is probably "native FLAC".
If all you are doing is compressing audio to be played back later, native FLAC will do everything you need, is more widely supported, and will yield smaller files.Verification and validation are the essential procedures required to assess accuracy and credibility of numerical analyses. However, the two procedures have entirely different meanings and applications.
The differences are outlined below:. It deals with the mathematics, only. Unlike verification, validation deals with the physics. You need to verify the program to ensure that the developed code is correctly incorporated into the FE program and its mathematics is in entire accordance with the theory.
Thereafter, you need to validate the program to ensure that the model is capable of simulating the reality which, in this example, is soil stress-strain response. It is the responsibility of the program developers to take care of the verification and ensure that their product is mathematically correct and is free of programming errors so-called bugs.
On the other hand, validation should be generally performed by the end user. It is the primary responsibility of the end user to create a numerical model that represents the real physical model by adopting appropriate boundary conditions, constitutive models, elements, etc. Note: The three centrifuge tests referenced above were primarily meant to analyze seismic soil-pile interaction. However, measurements at the free-field far from the piles are of interest herein.
Verification vs. Validation in Numerical Modeling
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Skip to content. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.Whether you are working on projects that are simple or complex, or you are working on excavations, embankments, and foundations or tunneling, mining, and reservoir geomechanics, this finite element package has what you need.
Engineering companies and institutions in the civil and geotechnical engineering industry count on PLAXIS 3D's range of CAD-like drawing capabilities and extrude, intersect, combine, and array operations.
Leverage powerful and versatile post-processing and display forces, displacements, stresses, and flow data in contour, vector, and iso-surface plots in various ways. Cross-section capabilities allow for a more detailed analysis of the results. The Curve manager enables graph creation, plotting various types of results from available calculation data. Accurately model the construction process by activating and deactivating soil clusters and structural elements in each calculation phase with staged construction.
With plastic, consolidation and safety analysis calculation types, a broad range of geotechnical problems can be analyzed. Constitutive models range from simple linear to advanced highly nonlinear models through which soil and rock behavior can be simulated. Well proven and robust calculation procedures ensure converging calculations and accurate results. Efficiently create models with a logical geotechnical workflow. Define everything from complex soil profiles or geological cross-sections to structural elements, such as piles, anchors, geotextiles, and prescribed loads and displacements.
Import geometry from CAD-files. Automatically mesh to create a finite element mesh almost immediately. Simulate the coupling between soil deformations and transient seepage in the dynamic loading phase. Using this new, advanced calculation type offers generally improved stress predictions and accounts for both eventualities of accumulation and dissipation of excess pore pressures during earthquakes.
The field stress initial calculation type allows for direct specification of in situ stress conditions on a volume of soil. It is now possible to assign a different field stress property to individual soil volumes and borehole layers, allowing you to independently input the initial stress state by magnitude and orientation for each of those clusters. The cluster-based field stress complements the global field stress and makes it easier to define the in-situ stress for geological models.
This allows easily modeling non-uniform deepground conditions, such as those encountered in deep tunneling or reservoir geomechanics.
Tunnels are often reinforced with transverse ribs, which can now be modeled as curved beam elements located at specific intervals in the 3D tunnel designer. The option to add transverse girders, together with plate and volume lining, rockbolts, and umbrella arches, enables modeling complex tunnel reinforcement systems.
Girders are a natural component in the slicing and sequencing features of the tunnel designer, enabling you to define the entire construction sequence. Create cross-section curveplots from any arbitrary line cross section, structural element, or centerline generated from the structural forces in volume piles capability. It allows you to create a single curveplot to compare how the settlements at the surface level evolve for multiple phases, or to compare the bending moment along the length of a diaphragm wall or tunnel lining either modeled as plates or volume elements across multiple phases simultaneously.
Both these features can be used to provide smooth transitions between non-homogeneous sections. The blend surfaces feature generates a continuous surface that joins a set of other surfaces by filling the voids between them.
The loft polycurves command fits a surface to a set of polycurves, such as turning a series of spatially located 2D cross-sections into a consistent 3D geometry. NURBS curves are automatically generated from a series of successive points. These curves and polycurves can be combined to generate almost any geometry. NURBS curves can also be specified as extrusion paths, which enables the generation of curved linear elements with uniform cross section.
For example, a cross section that is defined by a polygon or polycurve can be extruded along the trajectory defined by a NURBS curve. These samples can be run live in the software to see and understand what happens. You can also edit and rerun the samples and see the effect of your changes, offering a great way of learning-by-doing. Capabilities Analyze results with post-processing Leverage powerful and versatile post-processing and display forces, displacements, stresses, and flow data in contour, vector, and iso-surface plots in various ways.
Ask an Expert. Events and Training Register Now. Learn More.Perform two-dimensional analysis of deformation and stability in geotechnical engineering and rock mechanics. Engineering companies and institutions in the civil and geotechnical engineering industry count on PLAXIS for a variety of projects.
From excavations, embankments, and foundations to tunneling, mining, and reservoir geomechanics, engineers rely on PLAXIS as their go-to finite element analysis application. Efficiently create models with a logical geotechnical workflow. Define everything from complex soil profiles or geological cross-sections to structural elements, such as piles, anchors, geotextiles, and prescribed loads and displacements.
Import geometry from CAD-files. Automatically mesh to create a finite element mesh almost immediately. Accurately model the construction process by activating and deactivating soil clusters and structural elements in each calculation phase with staged construction. With plastic, consolidation and safety analysis calculation types, a broad range of geotechnical problems can be analyzed. Constitutive models range from simple linear to advanced highly nonlinear models through which soil and rock behavior can be simulated.
Well proven and robust calculation procedures ensure converging calculations and accurate results. Leverage powerful and versatile post-processing and display forces, displacements, stresses, and flow data in contour, vector, and iso-surface plots in various ways.
Cross-section capabilities allow for a more detailed analysis of the results. The Curve manager enables graph creation, plotting various types of results from available calculation data. Capabilities Create finite element models Efficiently create models with a logical geotechnical workflow. Ask an Expert. Events and Training Register Now. Learn More. Showcase Willemspoortunnel Video Case Study Learn more about variant with a large spanning building over the tunnel area with an excavated basement pit.
Featured User Projects. Related Products.
Geotechnical stability analysis using student versions of FLAC, PLAXIS and SLOPE/W
Product Resources.Post a Comment. Khmer PES. It is a robust and user-friendly finite element package, developed for Geotechnical Engineering. In addition, since soil is a multi phase material, special procedures are required to deal with hydrostatic and non hydrostatic pore pressures in the soil.
Although the modelling of the soil itself is an important issue, many projects involve the modelling of structures and the interaction between the structures and the soil. PLAXIS 3D is a finite element package intended for three-dimensional analysis of deformation and stability in geotechnical engineering.
It is equipped with features to deal with various aspects of complex geotechnical structures and construction processes using robust and theoretically sound computational procedures.
These modes are specifically defined for Soil or Structural modelling. Independent solid models can automatically be intersected and meshed. The staged constructions mode enables a realistic simulation of construction and excavation processes by activating and deactivating soil volume clusters and structural objects, application of loads, changing of water tables, etc.
The output consists of a full suite of visualization tools to check details of the complex inner structure of a full 3D underground soil-structure model. PLAXIS 3D is a user friendly 3d geotechnical program offering flexible and interoperable geometry, realistic simulation of construction stages, a robust and reliable calculation kernel, and comprehensive and detailed post-processing, making it a complete solution for your daily geotechnical design and analysis.
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Are you an Engineering professional? Join Eng-Tips Forums! Join Us! By joining you are opting in to receive e-mail. Promoting, selling, recruiting, coursework and thesis posting is forbidden. Students Click Here. Related Projects. Plaxis thread Maybe some experience or practical point of view? Currently Im using Plaxis and Im not sure with my outputs so I try to find a new codes. Tell me something about overall practice in Flac!!!! I can't comment too much on the coding part of the programs, but Plaxis is by far the easier program to use.
The biggest disadvantage of FLAC is the tediousness of it. With FLAC, you must generate your grid mesh first. You must plan on the size, shape, and mesh density of your grid before you even begin to shape it into the geometry and model you are analysing.
It is a pain to alter the grid after starting to create the model geometry, oftentimes it becomes an iterative process, and sometimes you must start over from scratch. With Plaxis, you create the model geometry with the simple CAD-type tool, and generate the grid mesh at the click of a button. There's just no comparison in the ease of it.Design and perform advanced finite element analysis of soil and rock deformation and stability, as well as soil structure interaction and groundwater and heat flow.
You will have what it takes to handle advanced constitutive models for the simulation of the nonlinear and time-dependent behavior of soils.
Apply hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic pore pressures, model structures and the interaction between the structures and the soil, and take on projects of all types such as excavations, foundations, embankments, tunnels, mines, dredging, and more. Perform 3D analysis of deformation and stability on your next geotechnical project with PLAXIS 3D Suite, a finite element package that includes modules for vibration and groundwater analysis.
Perform 2D analysis of deformation and stability in geotechnical engineering with PLAXIS 2D Suite, a powerful finite element package that includes specialized modules for vibration, groundwater analysis, and heat flow. Solutions for multi-discipline site planning and design, multi-discipline building design and analysis, project collaboration, and campus information management.
Solutions for mine planning and surveying, bulk materials handling layout and design, GIS, water management, and asset performance management. Solutions for multidiscipline design and analysis of networks and stations, project collaboration, GIS, predictive maintenance, and asset management. Solutions for road, bridge and tunnel design and analysis, subsurface engineering, project collaboration, GIS, and asset lifecycle information management.
Learn More. Site response analysis and liquefaction evaluation. Showcase 3D FE Modeling of a Large Waste Disposal Site Video Case Study The importance of soil structure interaction in seismic design of structures is recognized by the seismic design community, which is strongly moving toward performance-based design principles. Showcase Willemspoortunnel Video Case Study Learn more about variant with a large spanning building over the tunnel area with an excavated basement pit.
PLAXIS Geotechnical Finite Element Analysis Software
Highlighted Industries. Featured User Projects. Extension 11 — Adaptation of the Mairie des Lilas Station Setec-Terrasol used Plaxis to establish 3D geotechnical models of two new access points at the existing Mairie des Lilas Station of the Paris metro, accelerating design and construction while reducing costs.